Thursday, January 30, 2020
Organizational Behavior Essay The paper would discuss about a case study of a departmental store called, MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s, where the problem statement would be elaborated, comprehensive analysis would be done regarding the problems and circumstances, and finally recommendations would be given as a solution which would be followed by a conclusion. So letÃ¢â¬â¢s have a quick overview of what the case study talks about. MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s, which is a departmental store organization, has recently decided to reshape the organizational structure where more emphasis would be laid on the local districts and stores as compared to the central stores. Moreover, they would be given more autonomy and authority to operate, conduct research, order merchandise, and market those products in a suitable manner depending on the type of the target market, social norms, and customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. This strategy is designed in order to keep the customers close to the business, understand what actually they want, how they want, and at what prices they want; therefore, doing every such thing in order to fulfill their needs and wants and keeping them satisfied. MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s has around 20 districts that operate in different regions, and the managers or staff working there would now be handling with less stores than previously. This would be done to make them focused on the areas where they are working, penetrate in there, grab the market share, and bring in more profits. Not only this, MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s several retail outlets were named differently, which all are rebranded and named as MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s. This is all done because previous mergers and expansion of the business did not provide lucrative results due to the improper formulation and implementation of the strategies. Problem Statement The problem in reshaping the organizational structure is that many of the employees, around 2000, would be laid off in just a blink of an eye, which would of course create some retaliation on part of the employees and unions. Another problem would be the decision-making, as in, who should be appointed as a manager or supervisor of a given district so that he enjoys his autonomy and own decisions. It would create conflicts among the employees because everyone would be willing to be a manager or supervisor. Read more:Ã Essay on Organizational Behavior Furthermore, the restructuring would take time and most importantly, the costs of operating separately would increase because each store in a different district would be ordering different types of products with different features and variants. Not only this, marketers would have to conduct research extensively to find out the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs, wants, preferences, and purchasing power. Case Study Analysis Now letÃ¢â¬â¢s highlight each problem and analyze it in great detail. Starting from the first problem where 2000 thousand employees would be laid off, it would not be pointless to say that the employees would retaliate over the uncertainty of their jobs as in, whom the company would be layoff and why. This would instigate a sense of demotivation, dejection, and a feeling among the employees where they would no longer see them as part of the organization; therefore, the performance would drastically decline before the implementation of the new plan Ã¢â¬â reshaping the organizational structure. Instead of moving on forward and implement the plan, the company would entangle itself in another problem and hence would waste the time in dealing with it. Talking about the second problem, of course the employees would be glad that finally they would get a chance to think, plan, and implement their own ideas and strategies since they would be held responsible for their separate stores and given autonomy. But on the other hand, the big question mark that would be lying in the minds of the employees would be to whom the autonomy would be given be given and why, because almost every one of them would love to have such autonomy. Conflicts after conflicts would occur because once the employees are given their charge and autonomy, each of them would face confrontations from those who were neglected and not selected as a manger. This would create a ripple effect in the whole process and would eventually undermine the organizational performance. Not only this, the demands of each of those managers or supervisors regarding the resources and funds would be different, since each of them would want to spend as much money and resources as required in order to get fruitful results. This of course, would lead to the lavish spending and waste of resources that might lead to the incurring of loss for the company due to the increase of unnecessary costs. The reshaping of any organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s structure is not an easy task; in fact, it takes time and resources to take it to the next level. Currently MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s has a tall or mechanistic structure, where there lies several hierarchies and the power or autonomy is central; and the new strategy is designed to eliminate some hierarchical levels and distribute the powers to separate districts in order to have an organic or flat structure (Robbins Judge, 2007). The problem related to this restructuring would be manifold because the company would have to be ready to face the ever-increasing costs of operating separately and customizing the product lines. First of all, the costs related to the payrolls would increase as the responsibility of the employees would increase. Not only this, the managers would have to be trained for acquiring the skills to handle the whole district and the stores, so this would require considerable amount of investment too. When it comes to gathering the information about the locality to know the market trends, customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and wants, in order to sell customized products; therefore, the managers would have to be provided with sufficient funds and resources to conduct market research surveys through several tools including questionnaires, focus groups, in-depth interviews, and informal interviews (Zikmund, 2006). Increased costs would not stop here, in fact the tailoring of products with respect to their types, sizes, colors, and features would require the manufacturer and supplier costs to increase. In addition to these problems, there is no surety that the new strategies would work the way they are expected to and give favorable outcomes. If they get flop, the result would be quite disastrous for the company and all of its district stores. Till now we discussed the problems that are there and might arise when the new plan would be implemented; now letÃ¢â¬â¢s shed some light over the recommendations for overcoming these problems. Recommendations MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s departmental store management team should consider the dark sides of its plan and prepare contingency plans that can be implemented to overcome the loss. First of all, in order to deal with the retaliation problem from the side of employees due to layoff, MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s should introduce a plan where those employees who are to be laid off, would be informed well before the time and would be offered three month salaries in advance so that they do no face any problem until they stay unemployed. This would somewhat cool them down and would not force them to retaliate. As far as the second problem is concerned, MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s should consider appointing the senior employees as managers of separate district and local stores, who are there at MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s for many years and have considerable experience. Not only this, another strategy that should be introduced and implemented throughout the MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s stores chain is the compensation plan called Performance-based compensation, where the employees who perform well and have better productivity level are rewarded by monetary rewards or promotion to be a manager or supervisor. This will create the need and sense of responsibility among the employees to reduce unnecessary costs, improve productivity in terms of sales, and gain overall efficiency; therefore, the issue of wastage of resources would automatically diminish. Furthermore, the conflicts would be eliminated since all the employees would be working diligently so that he or she can be promoted and rewarded more. Since MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s departmental organization has an extensive chain of stores, so implementing such a big change of organizational restructuring would not be easy and would require the services of specialists and consultants. Therefore, MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s must hire some change agents and consultants who would then study each and every aspect of the organization, the needs and requirements, and would form an effective plan for bringing on the change. They usually adopt the method including three major steps Ã¢â¬â freezing, changing, and refreezing (Daft, 1997). The whole process of change would go systematically and the chances of occurring of blunders would be very minimal, since these change agents are master in their jobs. Conclusion After analyzing the whole case study, we found out several problems that the company might face when the new plan of organizational restructuring takes place. Those problems include retaliation from the side of employees due to layoff, conflicts among the employees over getting more autonomy and job status, and swelling costs due to the separate demands and needs of the stores operating under distinct cultural and social settings. Then we highlighted some of the recommendations that if implemented, can overcome these issues effectively. Employees must be told in advance about their being layoff and granted with three months of advance salaries. Secondly, MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s should appoint experienced and senior employees as the mangers and supervisors of the chain stores; moreover, performance-based compensation plan must be implemented. And finally, the services of change agents and consultants should be taken for implementing the new plan of restructuring, who would implement it in a systematic way by first freezing the company, changing it, and then refreezing it. Consequently, the task of restructuring is a hectic and difficult one that requires ample amount of time, but it is not impossible and can be made to meet its end meet by devising effective strategies to carry on with it. References Daft. R. L. (1997). Management. Fourth Edition. U. S. A. The Dryden Press Robbins. S. P, and Judge. T. A. 2007. Organizational Behavior. India. Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd. Zikmund. W. G. (2003). Business Research Methods. Seventh edition. Singapore. Thomson Asia pte. Ltd.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Technology Helps Sneak Christianity into China About one out of four people live in China, but until recent technological advances there were very few ways that Christians could get past the Communist government to reach those people with the message of Christ. But through radio, internet and other types of technology, Christianity is growing in China by opening up people's minds to religion and allowing Christians who are there to have access to Christian resources in order to spread the word. Radio can effectively reach people throughout China with the message of Christ. By using shock waves, radio stations set up in countries that surround China can broadcast in China without government limitations on the content of their programming. Some of these radio stations also broadcast throughout the world to reach the many Chinese people outside of China who have not had the opportunity to hear the gospel presented in their language (Lin). "The Back to God Hour" is just one example of how radio is being used to spread Christianity in China. Based in Chicago, IL with an office in Honk Kong, "The Back to God Hour" broadcasts three hours a day around the world with an emphasis on China. Their programs include Christian music, stories with Biblical values, sermons and question and answer time. They receive approximately 300 letters a week from listeners with faith questions (Lin and Back to God Hour Pamphlet). "The Back to God Hour" and radio ministries like it are reaching thousan ds of people in China and throughout the world with the message of hope in Jesus Christ. The Internet is the newest form of technology that is being used to spread Christianity in China. Although the government filters out most Christian web sites, some can still be seen in China. Information is added to the Internet so quickly that they can not filter fast enough. Also, there are people in China who know how to avoid the filters set by the government (Tao). It is important to point out that even though there is some availability to Christian material on the web in China, only 1 percent of the people there have access to the Internet right now. However, this number is doubling every year. In the web page entitled "Incredible Growth in China" it says: "China begins a campaign to bring industries, government offices, and households online as part of a national strategy to make the internet a more powerful engine for growthÃ¢â¬ ¦The official Newspaper China Daily reported, 'Beijing has accepted the fact that there is no way to really control the growth, or the use of the i nternet. Technology Helps Sneak Christianity into China :: Christians Religion Essays Technology Helps Sneak Christianity into China About one out of four people live in China, but until recent technological advances there were very few ways that Christians could get past the Communist government to reach those people with the message of Christ. But through radio, internet and other types of technology, Christianity is growing in China by opening up people's minds to religion and allowing Christians who are there to have access to Christian resources in order to spread the word. Radio can effectively reach people throughout China with the message of Christ. By using shock waves, radio stations set up in countries that surround China can broadcast in China without government limitations on the content of their programming. Some of these radio stations also broadcast throughout the world to reach the many Chinese people outside of China who have not had the opportunity to hear the gospel presented in their language (Lin). "The Back to God Hour" is just one example of how radio is being used to spread Christianity in China. Based in Chicago, IL with an office in Honk Kong, "The Back to God Hour" broadcasts three hours a day around the world with an emphasis on China. Their programs include Christian music, stories with Biblical values, sermons and question and answer time. They receive approximately 300 letters a week from listeners with faith questions (Lin and Back to God Hour Pamphlet). "The Back to God Hour" and radio ministries like it are reaching thousan ds of people in China and throughout the world with the message of hope in Jesus Christ. The Internet is the newest form of technology that is being used to spread Christianity in China. Although the government filters out most Christian web sites, some can still be seen in China. Information is added to the Internet so quickly that they can not filter fast enough. Also, there are people in China who know how to avoid the filters set by the government (Tao). It is important to point out that even though there is some availability to Christian material on the web in China, only 1 percent of the people there have access to the Internet right now. However, this number is doubling every year. In the web page entitled "Incredible Growth in China" it says: "China begins a campaign to bring industries, government offices, and households online as part of a national strategy to make the internet a more powerful engine for growthÃ¢â¬ ¦The official Newspaper China Daily reported, 'Beijing has accepted the fact that there is no way to really control the growth, or the use of the i nternet.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Nowadays, more people tend to focus on environment issues of corporation because they are the main factors of causing pollution to the earth and impact to the ecological system. Cadbury is the world fourth biggest manufactory of chocolate, it had done a seriously rainforest destruction as a result of their business requiring large amount of raw materials that are collect from natural resources (Cadbury's Shareholders Find Palm Oil Leaves a Bitter Taste 2004). This essay examine the performance of Cadbury and how they dealing the problems with raw materials as well as the effect on the environment and stakeholders. Cadbury used to be a small beverage shop in 1824, after merging with Schweppes to form Cadbury Schweppes, it acquire more companies after that and today it became one of the largest confectionery company ( history of Cadbury n. d. ) and also one of the largest multi-national corporation (business service industry 2008). The starting main purpose of Cadbury is not creating new brand that people love but is to raise the shareholder value and they already succeed in achieving this purpose twenty years ago (Cadbury Schweppes 2004). After that they have just started to change their business target to create new brand that people love. Cadbury detected that there is a rare bacteria named Ã¢â¬Å"SalmonellaÃ¢â¬ affecting numbers of their product and it is believe due to the leaking pipe, but they are not paying attention to this serious matter. Eventually, Cadbury was prosecuted because of countering health and safety legislation in the year 2007 and was fined 1 million pounds for their irresponsible performance which is also definitely effect the profit of stakeholders(Defying a Reputational Crisis Ã¢â¬â CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Salmonella Scare: Why are Customers willing to Forgive and Forget? 009). Today, Cadbury franchise such as India, USA, Canada have treated CSR as the key to the success of business comparing to the past; they believe that the responsible for environment, health and safety are very important to minimize the impact of environment, It is also important that they can become a profitable and effective company by this way and they will surely proud of what they have done (CSR helps businesses keep ta bs on environmental, social impact 2010). In order to fulfil society needs, Cadbury continuously launched 23 kinds of chocolate and keep improving their quality to the best from the year 1865 until today. Besides, Cadbury is the first company to provide pictures on the product instead of printing text on the product. There are also many special event held by Cadbury such as giving away some souvenirs products and also a redeem event for their customer to get further item by purchasing their products. (History of Cadbury n. d. They also certified their chocolates as Fair-trade products by labelling it on the products to decrease the public pressure (Cadbury goes Fairtrade2009). Impact on Environment Since manufacturing chocolate require large amount of raw materials, Cadbury discover palm oil is the most basic and cheapest secret ingredient to make chocolate instead of using cocoa butter which require higher cost. Unfortunately, this lead to the serious deforestation problem that not only effected the environment but also man y animals is killed. New Zealand's Auckland Zoo is the place where the primary deforestation took place and this was considered as a threat to most of the wild life that inhabited in that area especially Orangutan, they have became Ã¢â¬Å"the orphans of the palm oilÃ¢â¬ because most of their parents are killed during the deforestation(Palm oil costs Cadbury trusted title 2010). Auckland Zoo has also stop stocking CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s chocolate anymore to express their protest. (Auckland Zoo bans Cadbury chocolate due to palm oil content 2009). Auckland Zoo also organise an organisation in Facebook which is Ã¢â¬Å"Anti Palm Oil Community (APOC) Ã¢â¬Å"to focus the serious of the deforestation issue which destroy 300 rugby fields every hour(APOC). Besides, in order to meet the production target, the company always hired a lot of worker but those workers that are working in the palm oil are often poorly treated. Cadbury has anÃ¢â¬ Ethical Trading PolicyÃ¢â¬ but they have totally neglect the importance of environment and the human rights issue (Cadbury's Shareholders Find Palm Oil Leaves a Bitter Taste 2004). Cadbury also claim that the palm oil they used is Ã¢â¬Å"green and sustainableÃ¢â¬ as they have their own certificate system, but they have just pretend to use 2,800 tonnes of palm oil which is recorded in the certificate instead of the actual amount of 40,000 tonnes of palm oil. (Green wash of the week: CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëgreen palm oilÃ¢â¬â¢ claim 2009)They are ignoring the severity of environment impact they have done, just to emphasize on their profit; the stakeholders also faced a serious losses from this case. One of the serious problem that environment faced is the global warming and it is caused by the widen hole of atmosphere. According to the scientific research, every single litre of milk produce approximately 900g of Carbon dioxide. Carbon trust is having a carbon footprinting project and discovered that more than 60% of the Carbon dioxide is produced by the CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s dairy cows farm(We've had drumming gorillas, now Cadbury takes on burping cows 2009). CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s dairy cows farm play the most important role in this incident as the cows produced 80~120kg of methane per year which is similar as a family car and was release to the atmosphere that eventually widen the hole of atmosphere. This methane emission is actually produced with the burps of the cows due to the incorrect diet. (Cadbury to curb methane emissions from burping dairy cows 2009)They did not pay attention for their animals as raising animals required a lot of effort by adjusting the stay and diet of the animals. CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s intension overcome environment issues CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to replace cocoa butter with palm oil has caused a serious damage to environment and also a lot of complain by consumers as palm oil is a complex and unhealthy ingredient. In order to fulfils their Environment, Health and safety policy they have no choice but to cut down adding palm oil into chocolate. The deforestation that took place at Auckland Zoo has also caused the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation to drop. (Cadbury dumps palm oil after consumer protests 2009)With the cut down usage of palm oil, they believe it could at least, save their reputation from dropping too much. Dealing with the climate change is also one of their target improvements in environment. Cadbury has announced that they have 17% reduction of water consumption by improving their manufacturing progress in the year 2006 which is also act in concert with the World Water day (Cadbury Reduces Water Consumption by 17 Percent 2009). Cadbury eventually launch a strategy plan Ã¢â¬Å"Purple goes greenÃ¢â¬ in the year 2008 and set their target to reduce unnecessary consumption while producing chocolates especially to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide by 50% in the year 2020. They have successfully in achieving part of their target within a year with reducing the usage of packaging and the emission of carbon dioxide; they have also successfully saved 4 millions litre of water per year (Cadbury-Purple goes green 2008). For the next two years, they have a further target which is to ensure the packaging they used is 60% biodegradable. Besides, Carbon dioxide that produced with the burps of the cows is also a serious problem that destroys the environment. Cadbury has already worked together with the dairy farmer to figure out a better way to reduce carbon footprint from the milk chocolate (CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s works to reduce bovine emission 2009). They provide dairy farmers a guild to lower the emission through scientific research by changing the diet of cows to a balance nutritional. It is believe it will definitely reduce the emission problem by 50% in the year 2020 which is also part of their Ã¢â¬Å"Purple goes Green strategyÃ¢â¬ . (Cadbury Partners with Dairy Farmers to Reduce Carbon Footprint 2009). Packaging is also one of the factors causing impact to environment. Cadbury has worked hard to figure out a better way of packaging their products to minimize the impact to environment. Their target is to achieve 100% biodegradable by 2010 and they have co-operated with plantic technologies limited since 2002. (Responsible packaging 2007)Plantic do a lot of research at the research centre to invent a better biodegradable and non-toxic materials to advance the packaging technologies. Cadbury has replaced the roses tin with cardboard box and successfully made a brand new packaging production for Christmas and seasonal gifts (chocolate swallows millions of our dollars in an easter eating frenzy 2010) which not only reduce the weight by 45% but also saved 200 tonnes of steel. (Cadbury replaces Roses tin with cardboard box 2009)In the year 2008, Cadbury has awarded the best green packaging for its new product- Eco-eggs, with the special wrapping style as the products only used very limited materials to complete. Cadbury has successfully decreased the usage of plastic material by 247 tonnes and cardboard by 115 tonnes in the year 2008 for packaging their products. (Cadburys-Ã¢â¬ËEco-eggs' 2008)In this case, Cadbury has successfully proved their effort of saving the environment by achieving their Ã¢â¬Å"Purple Goes GreenÃ¢â¬ target and this is also helping the stakeholders to gain more profit. Cadbury also carry out an environmental research with Earthwatch in the year 2005 in order to have a better understanding as well as improving the quality of cocoa in Ghana. Their research focus on the quality of cocoa and try to invent a better way for farming cocoa bean in Ghana with increasing number of farmers in order to get the best production(Cadbury n. d. ). Cadbury not only provided financial support but also get itself involved in this research to show their intension upon improving environment issue. Concluding remarks CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s social improvement is obviously, although they did wrong sometime because they have placed profit as the most important role in business . From New Zealand's Auckland Zoo case, it has reflected Cadbury only concentrate on their profit but neglect the most importance issues which is how society will treat them and this has caused CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation to drop. Besides, even they have discovered that a rare bacteria is affecting their products, they did not pay attention to the serious matter which is possible to become a threat to health. As a result, they neglect the importance of environmental issues and caused serious damage to environment such as deforestation and also confronting the social protest. However, CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢s intension on improving the environment aspect of their business is strong and with wised planning, they have been doing this for almost a century. With the Ã¢â¬Å"Purple goes green strategyÃ¢â¬ and the reduction of carbon dioxide emission, water usage and packaging materials usage, they have shown their dedication on improving environment issues, trusting that achieving the environment, health and safety policy are the keys to the succeeds of business, not only just becoming a profit-oriented company but also become a environmentalist company. References http://news.mongabay.com/2009/0712-auckland_zoo_palm_oil.html http://news.mongabay.com/2009/0817-cadbury_nz.html http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/press_releases/cadburys_shareholders_find_20052004.html http://www.environmentalleader.com/2009/03/31/cadbury-reduces-water-consumption-by-17-percent/ http://www.csrwire.com/press_releases/13811-Cadbury-Partners-with-Dairy-Farmers-to-Reduce-Carbon-Footprint
Monday, January 6, 2020
General Electric is a global digital industrial company that was incorporated on April 15, 1892. They are categorized in the industry of diversified machinery. GE has nine different segments that make up their entire company, these include power, renewable energy, oil and gas, energy management, aviation, healthcare, transportation, appliances and lighting, and capital. Referring to the stock chart on Google, itÃ¢â¬â¢s pretty easy to tell whether or not General Electric Company outperformed the market or not. In majority of 2015, they stayed pretty consistent with the market fluctuating back and forth with each other. In 2016 GE outperformed the market significantly. Overall, GE stock increased 16.48% in the last 2 years, whereas SP 500 only increased 8.9% in those two years. JensenÃ¢â¬â¢s Alpha, Sharpe Ratio, and Treynor Ratio are performance evaluation measures that all have to do with the return the company earned based on the risk that was taken. JensenÃ¢â¬â¢s Alpha takes i nto account the realized return of the portfolio, realized return of the market index, risk-free rate, and the beta. General Electric had a JensenÃ¢â¬â¢s Alpha of 0.74. Any positive number means the company earned more than enough to compensate for the amount of risk taken. Sharpe Ratio considers the average rate of return, the risk-free rate, and the standard deviation. GE received a Sharpe ratio of 0.22. A ratio of 1 or higher is considered good, so in this case GE did not receive a very high return considering theShow MoreRelatedMake India A Success Or A Failure1456 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMAKE IN INDIA-A SUCCESS OR A FAILURE 1. Introduction Make in India is an initiative taken by the government of India to promote national as well as international companies to invest in India. It is the effort made by the PM to bring employment in India. 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